Otras publicaciones en EI/PNI
3 resultados encontrados
Vol 1 ,2
Sensor placement determination for range-difference positioning using evolutionary multi-objective optimization
F. Domingo, J. L. Lázaro, A. Wieser, E. Martin, D. Salido, A. de la Llanaa
This paper focuses on the application of a decision support system based on evolutionary multi-objective optimization for deploying sensors in an indoor localization system. Our methods aim to provide the human expert who works as the sensor resource manager with a full set of Pareto efficient solutions of the sensor placement problem. In our analysis, we use five scalar performance measures as objective functions derived from the covariance matrix of the estimation, namely the trace, determinant, maximum eigenvalue, ratio of maximum and minimum eigenvalues, and the uncertainty in a given direction. We run the multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize these objectives and obtain the Pareto fronts. The paper includes a detailed explanation of every aspect of the system and an application of the proposed decision support system to an indoor infrared positioning system. Final results show the different placement alternatives according to the objectives and the trade-off between different accuracy performance measures can be clearly seen. This approach contributes to the current state-of-the art in the fact that we point out the problems of optimizing a single accuracy measure and propose using a decision support system that provides the resource manager with a full overview of the set of Pareto efficient solutions considering several accuracy metrics. Since the manager will know all the Pareto optimal solutions before deciding the final sensor placement scheme, this method provides more information than dealing with a single function of the weighted objectives. Additionally, we are able to use this system to optimize objectives obtained from fairly complex functions. On the contrary, recent works that are referenced in this paper need to simplify the localization process to obtain tractable problem formulations.
D. Rodrguez, J. L. Lázaro, I. Bravo, A. Gardel, G. Tsirigotis
In order to obtain very precise measurements of the position of agents located at a considerable distance using a sensor system based on position sensitive detectors (PSD), it is necessary to analyze and mitigate the factors that generate substantial errors in the system’s response. These sources of error can be divided into electronic and geometric factors. The former stem from the nature and construction of the PSD as well as the performance, tolerances and electronic response of the system, while the latter are related to the sensor’s optical system. Here, we focus solely on the electrical effects, since the study, analysis and correction of these are a prerequisite for subsequently addressing geometric errors. A simple calibration method is proposed, which considers PSD response, component tolerances, temperature variations, signal frequency used, signal to noise ratio (SNR), suboptimal operational amplifier parameters, and analog to digital converter (ADC) quantitation SNRQ, etc. Following an analysis of these effects and calibration of the sensor, it was possible to correct the errors, thus rendering the effects negligible, as reported in the results section.
J. Garcia, A. Gardel, I. Bravo, J. L. Lázaro,
This paper presents an application for counting people through a single fixed camera. This system performs the count distinction between input and output of people moving through the supervised area. The counter requires two steps: detection and tracking. The detection is based on finding people's heads through preprocessed image correlation with several circular patterns. Tracking is made through the application of a Kalman filter to determine the trajectory of the candidates. Finally, the system updates the counters based on the direction of the trajectories. Different tests using a set of real video sequences taken from different indoor areas give results ranging between 87% and 98% accuracies depending on the volume of flow of people crossing the counting zone. Problematic situations, such as occlusions, people grouped in different ways, scene luminance changes, etc., were used to validate the performance of the system.